実在する同性カップルの一部の遺伝情報から出来うる子供の姿、性格等を予測し「家族写真」を制作した。現在ではまだ”不可能”な子供だが、遺伝子データ上での子供の推測ならば同性間でも出来る。ウェブの簡易版シミュレーター(β版)では、カップルの23andmeの遺伝データをアップロードすると、ランダムに出来うる組み合わせの子供のシミュレーションが病気のなり易さや外見、性格に関する情報等が文章で出てくる。

2004年の二母性マウス「かぐや」の誕生から10年以上経ち今年、女性から精子を、男性から卵子をつくれるのではないかと予想される内容のiPS細胞関連の研究論文が発表された。もはや同性間での子供の誕生が夢物語では無くなろうとしている。しかし技術的には可能でも倫理的に許されるのか、という議論を通過しなければ実現は難しい。一体誰がどの様に、その是非を決定するのだろうか?一部の医者や科学者か、それとも私達にその自由はあるのか。このプロジェクトは生命倫理と科学技術に対する決定を多くの人に解放する装置として、アートはどの様に関ることが出来るのか模索する試みでもある。

この子供達の”存在”に対してあなたは何を思うのだろうか?その議論の行方により、今は”impossible baby”だが、近い未来 i’m possible baby になるかもしれない。

追記: 広く議論する為にドキュメンタリー番組にて2015年10月初旬に放送されました。 制作過程や「かぐや」の河野友宏農学博士、CiRAの八代嘉美准教授、指導教官のスプツニ子!、そして遺伝データ提供者で同性婚をしている牧村朝子、Morigaさんカップル等のインタビューも含まれている。

(Im)possible Baby is a speculative design project which aims to stimulate discussions about the social, cultural and ethical implications of emerging biotechnologies that could enable same-sex couples to have their own, genetically related children. Delivering a baby from same-sex parents is starting to not look like a sci-fi dream anymore – recent developments in genetics and stem cell research, such as the achievements of scientists from Cambridge University in England and Israel’s Weizmann Institute of Science have made this dream much closer to reality. Jacob Hanna, the specialist leading the project’s Israeli arm, said it may be possible to use the technique to create a baby in just two years. “It has already caused interest from gay groups because of the possibility of making egg and sperm cells from parents of the same sex,” he said." Is creating a baby from same-sex parents the ethical thing to do? Who has the right to decide this, and how? This project aims to design and inspire debate about the bioethics of producing babies from same-sex couples. In this project, the DNA data of a lesbian couple was analyzed using 23andMe to simulate and visualize their potential children, and then we created a set of fictional, “what if" future family photos using this information to produce a hardcover album which was presented to the couple as a gift. To achieve more public outreach, we worked with the Japanese national television service, NHK, to create a 30-minute documentary film following the whole process, which aired in October 2015.

Won an Excellence Award at  19th Japan Media Arts Festival /19回文化庁メディア芸術祭、アート部門優秀賞受賞 Won Student Winner Speculative Concept Award, Core77 Design Awards 2016/Core77 デザインアワード 2016 スペキュラティブ コンセプト アワード 、生徒部門受賞

朝子さんの一部の一塩基多型(SNPs)情報。この情報は23andmeのデータを元に、SNPediaやhttps://promethease.com/を参考にした。(この遺伝情報の公開について両人の同意は取得済みです。)

モリガさんの一部の一塩基多型情報。朝子さんと違っているところを赤く表示している。

まめ子の一部の一塩基多型(SNPs)情報。ぽわ子と違っているところを赤く表示している。 ミトコンドリアDNAは朝子さんから受け継いでいる。朝子さんの卵子にモリガさんから作られた精子が受精した想定。

ぽわ子の一部の一塩基多型(SNPs)情報。まめ子と違っているところを赤く表示している。 ミトコンドリアDNAはモリガさんから受け継いでいる。モリガさんの卵子に朝子さんから作られた精子が受精した想定。

娘達それぞれの虹彩について。そばかすの様な点、色、波模様の有無、中と外の色が違っているか、年輪のような溝の有無についてSNPs情報から反映した。 虹彩は生体認証としても使われるように、一人ずつ違うもので、一卵性双生児でも違うといわれている。それ故、この二人の実際の虹彩は実際に肉体を持って産まれて、育ってみないと判らないところがある。 虹彩についてのSNPsは以下の論文を参照した。

Since they have an asian parent Asako, their eye colour is probably brown. Mameko has Rs1533995 (G;G). This is means her iris has no crypt (complicated water shadow-like iris pattern ), and has a simple iris pattern like Asako. Powako has (A:G) therefore she has a crypt, which is the same as Moriga’s iris. Mameko and Powako’s SNPs ID rs3739070 are (A;A), which indicates a higher likelihood of having furrows, which is the same as both parents. Mameko has (T;T) for Rs4900109, which means no pigmentation ring (same as Asako) . Powako has (T:G), thus her eyes have two colors. Inner and outer colors are different, which is also the case for Moriga. All family members have (C;C) for rs11630290, which indicates that Iris nevi are melanin accumulations on the anterior border layer. In other words, they have freckle-like dots in the iris.

まず、親二人の顔のモデルをつくり、そこから彼女達の幼い頃の写真を元に彼女達の子供の頃の顔を制作。顔の形状に関するSNPsはまだ少量しか特定されていないため、他の部分に関しては親二人子供の頃の顔のモデルの中間値の形状を使用している。
We made two SNPs files using the (im)possible baby simulator. We named the first generated file data as Mameko (which is a girl's name meaning "little bean" in Japan) and named the second generated file data as Powako(also a girl's name). This chapter shows how we visualized them. SNPedia and several online articles were the essential tools for constructing the facial portraits of the couple’s hypothetical daughters. Difficulties arose due to the fact that current genotype research is still fairly nascent. Since the project’s purpose is to inspire debate, not to create facial portraits with 100% accuracy with genetic markers, it must be said that the results resemble fortune-telling rather than science at this time of writing.

顔の形状に関するSNPsは以下の論文を参考にした。 Genetic determination of human facial morphology: links between cleft-lips and normal variation http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1002932 Detecting Genetic Association of Common Human Facial Morphological Variation Using High Density 3D Image Registration http://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003375 A Common Variation in EDAR Is a Genetic Determinant of Shovel-Shaped Incisors http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2756549/ Effects of an Asian-specific nonsynonymous EDAR variant on multiple dental traits http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22648185

まめ子はパクチーを石鹸の味に感じるDNAを持っており、一方ぽわ子はアスパラガスを食べた後の尿の臭いを嗅ぐ事ができるDNAを持っている。このページはそういった食べ物や臭いについての遺伝情報がそれぞれ書かれている。
In the photo, there are few hints that reveal the related SNPs ID, genotype, magnitude and short descriptions of these daughters.

This breakfast scene shows Mameko sniffing a coriander leaf and making a disgusted expression. She has the genotype "rs72921001 (C;C),” which means that she is more likely to think that coriander tastes like soap. Powako is eating an asparagus and looking at the camera with eyes full of mischief. She has the genotype "rs4481887 (A;G),” which means she is more likely to be able to smell asparagus metabolites in her urine. She is looking forward to smelling it soon at the toilet. Asako told us she is also able to smell it in her own urine.

裏庭で鬼ごっこ。このページは体型や筋肉についての情報。
This page shows physicality-related genotypes, such as muscle type, height, obesity and breast size.

娘たち10歳の誕生日。上には彼女達の性格や能力に関するといわれているSNPs 情報がそれぞれ書かれている。

2015年8月の受胎告知。The annunciation 2015 現在の技術では遺伝情報を取得する時のエラーや、解釈について未だ研究途上等の理由から占い程度と言われているものもある。しかし研究は日進月歩で進んでいるのも事実であり、これから精度も上がって行き「占い」の域を出る日も来るだろう。SNPsの解釈はSNPediaのデータベースを根拠に、それらを統合した情報、明確ではない部分やSNPs情報がなかった残りの部分は制作者の創作によって出来ている事を明言しておく。

簡易版シミュレーター(β版) http://aihasegawa.info/impossiblebaby/twoparents.html

顔のアイコンをクリックして自分の23andmeの生データ.txt形式ファイルをアップロードします。次に別の顔のアイコンをクリックして相手のデータをアップロードします。各親のSNPsデータをシャッフルしてランダムに半分をとり、同じようにした相手のデータと合わせて子供のデータを生成します。毎回ランダムにするので同じ子供は産まれません。子供の特徴をSNPediaのデータベースと照らし合わせ、マグニチュード2(注目度と考えていいと思います)以上だけ箇条書きにでてきます。生データも保存できるので、それをhttps://promethease.com/にアップロードすると(5ドルかかります)もっと細かい情報がわかります。
We developed a program which speculates your possible baby by uploading each parent's 23andMe .txt file.
This application uses data from SNPedia, matching your baby with the most interesting genotypes of magnitude 2 and above. The application does not hold or store the user’s personal data or results in any way. When uploading, the user must wait for a few minutes while the app processes their results.


Reproduction rights: the next step of same-sex marriage rights?
In 2013, more than 25 countries and local governments around the world followed the Netherlands in legalising same-sex marriage. Recent developments in reproductive technologies are suggesting that same-sex couples may also be able to have genetically-related children in the near future - but can society allow such a change to happen?
In 2004, a research team led by Prof. Tomohiro Kono in Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Tokyo University of Agriculture, succeeded in creating a bi-maternal mouse by altering imprinted gene expressions. In other words, the team created a mouse without a father, by turning an egg cell into surrogate sperm.
In 2013, a team of Japanese scientists succeeded in creating mouse germ(reproductive) cells in vitro from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). “Starting with the skin cells of mice in vitro, we created primordial germ cells (PGCs), which can develop into both sperm and eggs.“ (Nature 500, 392–394 , 22 August 2013). As you can see in the articles “Stem cells: Egg engineers” in Nature and “Stem Cells and Same Sex Reproduction” , these findings let us dream of the possibility of giving same-sex parents the ability to have a baby that is genetically their own.
In 2015, there were more reproductive research findings from the joint team of Cambridge University in England and Israel’s Weizmann Institute of Science . They established a potentially important gene to induce cells to turn into germ cells, specifically the SOX17 gene. The Sunday times reported this as "Cell breakthrough to bring two-dad babies".
Now, in 2016, the latest news on relevant reproductive research comes from Spain. A science news site phys.org has been reporting research under the headline "Scientists use skin cells to create human sperm". The original paper title is "Human somatic cells subjected to genetic induction with six germline-related factors display meiotic germ cell-like features". This research demonstrates a way to make human sperm from human male skin in vitro.
Within a month the skin cell was transformed to become a germ cell, which can develop into sperm or an egg, but it did not have the ability to fertilise, they found. "This is a sperm but it needs a further maturation phase to become a gamete. This is just the beginning," Simon said.
Although even the latest research does not give us enough knowledge to make functional sperm, this area of research has been progressing much faster than expected.

Who decides and how? (Why open this problem to citizens?)
An experience from my own life will help illustrate my motivations for carrying out this project, as well as demonstrate the relevance of these questions to society at large. I used to live in London, where I was legally allowed to do oocyte cryopreservation (egg freezing). I also saw a few advertisements in women's magazines about "free" egg freezing. If you donated your surplus eggs, you could freeze your eggs for free. A few years later, I returned to Japan. At that time, I heard the news that Japanese single females would be allowed to have this procedure performed starting from fall 2013.
I was surprised at the difference in attitude and the long delay prior to the introduction of cryopreservation in Japan. Then I researched about who was making these decisions. As a person who might need this technology, of course, I wanted to know, think about, and discuss this issue. The Japan Society for Reproductive Medicine Ethics Committee are the decision makers in this case. This committee is an assembly of about twelve authorities: eight male doctors and four external researchers, who are: a lawyer, a cultural anthropologist, an ethicist and only one female: a sociologist. Despite deciding on a reproductive issue, the twelve committee members only include one female. An important, basically female issue seems to be decided by eleven males and one female. Even though these doctors are most likely experts in this field, I found it hard to avoid the feeling that this problem was being decided by older men who will never use this technology themselves.
Moreover, the committee’s website featured a public comments report. They collected these "public comments" only for 17 days, and only 20 people participated. The backgrounds of the public participants were as follows: 4 out of 20 were non-academic people. 14 out of 20 were females. 8 out of 20 were in the age range 20-40 years old. At most, only eight of the public committee members were potential users with a non-science related female voice. I wondered about the case of minorities - who can make a fair decision, and how? From examining the findings, we must acknowledge the bias in this decision-making system for those who are socially vulnerable.

http://designawards.core77.com/Speculative-Concept/48066/Im-possible-Baby